Training Warriors for the 21st Century

Training Warriors for the 21st Century
Joong Do Kwan Traditional Taekwondo cross training with Kidokwan Perth

25 Dec 2017

Of Secrets and Hidden Techniques

Growing up, my wuxia diet from comics and television introduced me to a steady stream of fantastical martial art abilities where practitioners could fly, regularly displayed external qi transmission, and the most adept of them were adept because of their unique 秘宗 (Mì zōng in Mandarin, mizong in Korean and Japanese). 秘宗 basically means 'secret system'.

As a young child and my want to suspend disbelief, I just assumed that was how it worked because how else, other than for the presence of their 秘宗 would they be able to accomplish such feats?

What made me stop to think about my continued suspension of disbelief was when I came across a book called Iron Fist - not to be confused with Marvel's Iron Fist. The book presented training in 易筋经 (Yìjīnjīng in Mandarin, ekikinkei in Japanese). To my superficial understanding, 易筋经 is a series of exercises and coordinated breathing to strengthen muscles and tendons, and develop a martial form of 內功 (Nèigōng in Mandarin). That's like developing your chi but using it to manifest in physical form.

Masters of 易筋经 were able to strike a series of objects and decide where the force of their blow would cause damage. From Hollywood, this ability was captured in Bloodsport where Jean Claude Van Damme hits a stack of bricks but only breaks the bottom one. In the scene this skill is wrongly identified as 'Dim Mak' or the death touch - which is an entirely different 秘宗.



So 易筋经 was an actual martial art with reports of feats like the above brick break. This made the young Colin think that many of these special effects had some basis in reality.

This unchallenged belief in secret systems stayed in the recesses of my mind and was a subject of curiosity as I grew in the martial arts. There were times where individuals claimed various abilities, and tried to associate their claims to this belief system. Eventually, as a growing expert in my field, rather than being convinced by their claims, I started to heavily disbelieve not only their abilities but their entire credibility. Even to this day I'd immediately question any BS about psychic ability, no touch knockouts, and generally all kyusho practices.

My limited beliefs however, met another challenge which would set me on another path in later life, during several seminars with Soke Don Angier (1933-2014) of Yanagi Ryu Aikijujutsu. Don was a genius-level martial art master and the most brilliant practitioner I have ever met in all my life. The YouTube videos don't do him justice but please research of his legacy. Anyway, Don (he insisted I called him that even though I met him only a few times), was able to do the most incredible and graceful feats - but was able and willing to explain each of them in terms which we could all understand. His explanation would often include various issues like biomechanics, physics, the way the eye perceives movement, psychology, and tactics.

This was a man who was explaining that his 秘宗 had nothing to do with chi or magic. That his skills were entirely explainable by physics, and that each of us could do it. Yet what he did still looked like a cross between a Jedi mind trick and force powers.

I was blown away. Here was a man who was not trying to deceive me by using my limited beliefs and assumptions. He was gifting us his insight - however rarefied it may be, in order to progress us as practitioners.

Fast forward to my 34th year practicing martial arts. I am now at the point of steadily discovering 秘宗 within my system. Literally my growing understanding from training and practising has led me to hidden techniques I was previously unaware of. You could say this is the secret system within my own system. And I was led to their discovery by infinitesimal increments of my own knowledge. Forcing myself to test out techniques, to extrapolate from previous lessons, to use traditional training methods, and to mix and match from what I already know.

Some of these 秘宗 correspond very closely to how I was originally taught, so in a way you could say my teachers did teach me this material either directly or indirectly, and such 秘宗 are their knowledge repackaged and drilled in different ways. Then there are other bits of knowledge where the connection is less direct, and you need to look at them on a conceptual level. In such a way then they do correspond to everything I've been taught including the patterns. They are the same and yet not the same.

Now don't get me wrong, I'm not shooting out a laser light show from my fingertips or knocking someone out through my winning personality. All my 秘宗 are doable, explainable, based on legitimate training, and are all tactical. In some instances, I might have snitched them from other practitioners. What? Snitched from other practitioners? So how can you believe that it's your 秘宗 or secret system. Well, it's my secret system or hidden technique because I don't believe the secret for this hard style approach is about esoteric content - I believe it is in the training methodology.

To put it simply - hard style is a meat and potatoes approach to martial training. I'm not meaning to demean it, but it'll never be a Yanagi Ryu. It'll never be as epic as the bullshit George Dillman feeds his students. When you see things from our secret system, it'll mostly appear mundane and innocuous - because they are based on tactical need.

Yet the 秘宗 is from our system transforms the way we understand the world. And it allows us to access other 秘宗 when we need it. It remains a secret to others just because of the amount of work we've done and the length of time it takes to transmit this information.



Look at this video from the Fajin Project (if you can't see it, check out Fajin Takedown Using Horse Footstep). This is a clear example of someone understanding the 秘宗 of their technique. Both of these practitioners are doing the same series of techniques - an outside arm control, gap close, and takedown. The guy in the black t-shirt looks like he's doing a fairly good job of it, and for all intents and purposes, the application is not a bad one. But when the video progresses and you see the guy on the right (in the white t-shirt) ... you know he's just doing something different ...

... There's a brush-draw and unbalancing of the opponent's lead hand whilst the back hand is ready to strike, then there's an open palm check of the opponent's body - which could have been a devastating strike to the back or side of the head, the leg is raised as a vertical strike to chin or to the underside of arm then is extended to strike the back leg, during the gap close you can see how his hip and thigh drives into his opponent's front leg, and lastly, the takedown could have easily driven the opponent face first into the pavement if he wanted to.

Just because we claim to have 秘宗 - this doesn't mean that you are doing worse off than us. We have taken pains to share as much of our insight as we can. If you sight some of said special techniques - a good number of them might even appear mundane to you. As if their presence was logical, commonsense ... in fact, anyone could have seen that before we did. Well, if you sight them and they fail to excite you or if you've tried them and they fail to fit with your bag of skills - they are after all prized as *our* 秘宗, not as yours. :-)

Keep training!

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18 Dec 2017

Lethal Martial Art Training is Not Self Defence

There's so much baggage in the martial arts. In Self-Control, Aggression, and Deescalation of Violence I discuss how the moral high ground of self-control can be self-defeating, 'defanging' the snake of your martial arts. In Etiquette, The Tenets, and the 道 of Taekwondo, I discuss how self-control allows a student to better access the combative nature of our training.



It is a difficult subject in this day and age. Many martial art classes are filled with young children whose parents are enthusiastic for them to acquire this mystical discipline from our practice of Taekwondo. These are people have no idea about the realities of violence nor the idea that learning 'a little self defence' may fill their child with a false sense of confidence.

Before he has begun his class, the instructor is already caught between the difficulties of verbalising his way through difficult issues, and an enamoured audience who doesn't really know what their children are getting from martial arts training.



So let's just train martial arts to the best of our ability then. We do this with impunity: going to full extension on strikes, aiming one or two inches behind to make boards break, nodding at the right instances when the instructor tells us a particular technique is lethal, getting our game on during sparring until our bout has to be stopped, thinking that we've taken the moral high ground because we don't lurk in dark alleyways to pounce on unsuspecting passersby, and lastly, because protective gear and soft mats prevents us from knowing the full extent of our martial skills.

All of which seems 'legit' because we are told to avoid fights and practice self-control.

Yet all of which would contribute to getting yourself jailed because you weren't trained to use reasonable force. In fact you have no idea when physical self defence is warranted. Nor did you think you have a moral obligation to defuse a situation and back away. Think about it, the smart phones are out and what do the witnesses record? They might have first seen some people shouting at each other but they've got video of you using your karate chop sockey and dropping someone to the ground. You did what you do just like you did in class. Excellent, slick technique, but how does that really look on video? It would look like you were the aggressor.

I train Traditional Taekwondo in a garage dojang. However lethal I think I am, if I really do want to hurt someone, it would be far easier for me to reach for the spade and use that against my opponents. That of course has never been my intent. If possible, I want to use the system to eschew unfairness and injustice, to protect the weak and defenceless, and to protect my family and myself. The practice allows me to gain insight into the human condition, I enjoy the physical exercise, and my little school gives me fulfilment.



However courteous and morally upright I go about my life, when things go wrong, I need to be able to think clearly despite any emotional turmoil. I must seek to defuse the situation. I must sincerely attempt to de-escalate to the best of my ability. I know that no one wins in an altercation. So I'm constantly reading the situation - I may already have my fence up with palms facing outward, and I may be slowly backing away.

If things go south, I still attempt to disconnect and distance - putting objects in the path of my oncoming aggressor. I want to make sure I'm safe, so I scan the environment and perhaps look for equipment or weapons on the attacker that he might use on me. I also shout for the attacker to stop and to seek help or attention. A great idea is to ask the attacker some nonsensical question so the guy is forced to process my ludicrous logic.

If however, this fails, then I get my cover up and to start to move tactically. I might attempt to slow him down. Or deflect the strikes. Or gap close, go for limb control or a hair grab. Or do a safe takedown and immobilisation. All this while still trying to talk him out of it.

If your sincere deescalation attempts fail. If you could not control him with a lock or takedown, and you feel your life is in imminent danger ... this is when you go for your striking tools. It's not appropriate to strike someone if they looked aggressive and are walking away. It's not a great look to cross the threshold and king hit the bikie who's talking trash about your girl. Even if the person is holding a knife, but he's eyeing the door, not making a move toward your person, and is thinking of making an escape - you cannot use 'self defence' (read lethal martial arts) techniques on them.

You also have to use reasonable force to only stop the threat. If your attacker is on the floor with a brain haemorrhage from the fall to the ground (you didn't think to hold him up), broken elbow from your arm break, collapsed trachea from the neck strike, and a subluxation of the knee from your low side kick ... well, your 'self defence' (read lethal martial arts) training did stop the attacker but the overkill will fail to protect you from the jury.



Don't fake yourself to think that people use self defence everyday and are wrongly convicted by the legal system. Don't fake yourself to believe it is better to be judged by twelve than carried by six. It is your obligation to understand how best to manage your own training. You cannot practice lethal martial arts with impunity. The training message must be clear - dangerous techniques must be used with caution, with awareness that they are to be used only when you feel your life is under imminent threat. To put it in physical terms, and I know this must be difficult to hear - the knife must literally be coming for you if you aim to shut down his airway.

If you are interested in self defence skills you lastly need to train with awareness. It's not all about the absolute speed you can throw that kick. You need to be sensitive and you have to be able to read your opponent. Spar slowly. Take off the gloves. Get close and personal. Mix it up and practice in a multiple opponent environment. You practice so you should be able to answer this one question - what did the opponent do? In a court of law, other practitioners will testify that your Taekwondo or martial art training helps you become more observant whilst under duress. You can use this to make better reasonable choices. You can decide when enough is enough on your part. You can use this to justify your actions when it comes time to.

Please research, seek guidance or legal advice on the use of force continuum.

Please visit the One Punch Can Kill website at http://opck.qhvsg.org.au/ and support their community service message.

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Note: This article was submitted to Totally Taekwondo in August 2017.


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11 Dec 2017

Why chamber a kick when we can throw it faster without chambering?

A question was posed to me about the issues between how traditionally we are taught to chamber a kick, and then what you have in sparring where kicks are thrown without the chamber. This was my reply, edited to be read on this blog.

From a historical perspective, and this might not relate fully to the chambering itself but may be of interest to your background, I believe I read somewhere that Funakoshi sensei was an advocate that the snap back of the kick was essential to deliver the full power yet reduce the injurious recoil or the vibration going back to your joints.

From my perspective, the chamber allows for the full range of motion. This means that one can deliver a textbook perfect technique at the prescribed range and towards a prescribed target. This is a teaching approach for beginners, and for instructors to ensure everyone is learning the prescribed biomechanics, understanding angles of entry, and 'parameters' (my instructor's term not mine) of various fundamental strikes.

However, for the sake of tactical delivery, the full range of motion is not always available or preferable. To reduce distance to target, it may be better to strike from where the tool is, rather than to bring it back and go for the full range of motion. Thus the end tool is picked up from where it is at, thrown at the opponent, and 'rejoins' the flight path of your textbook perfect technique at some point.

Additionally, facing off a more adept opponent may require you to explore additional angles of entry - the practitioner is forced to adapt the flight path, while considering the framework provided by the various basic kicks, in order to fly the weapon through three-dimensional space and deliver its payload to the target, and not to the obstacles placed in the way.

Lastly is the issue of makiwara training and power generation vis a vis the chambered kick. Before I trained the makiwara, I powered most of my punches through shoulder rotation, speed, and effort. I lifted heavier weights to gain more muscle mass. I hit the bag like a boxer. However, when I gained insight through the makiwara, I understood that I could pulse the legs and hips, and send much more body weight through the core, and transmit that with incredible effectiveness into the end tool. This traditional training spurred me to apply the insight that power generation is influenced by transmission of body weight at point of impact.

For the chambered kick, and for all processes we get student practitioners to go through - this is as much for timing, as it is for biomechanics. The student needs to deliver the strike within possibly 2 or 3 inches - whilst throwing a technique at considerable speed and performing under duress. This means to be able to structure the body most effectively to time the transmission of as much body weight as possible whilst remaining tactically effective and staying in the fight.

For this reason ... as a 47/8 year old practitioner, I am able to generate a heap of power whilst not having an equal amount of muscle mass as other students who are much younger and stronger than me.

On a separate note, the act of chambering a kick has additional tactical use aside from delivering the kick. In this video applying the low side kick from Bassai I show a chamber for a side kick used to clear the lead leg. It could variously be used to knee strike other parts of the opponent's anatomy or defend against primary attacks. Similarly, the chambering of the front kick can stop another front kick. The chambering of a wave kick can cause the practitioner to defend the wrong part of his body - before sidekicking the knee or ankle. Etc.

Something to think about - the chamber of the kick and its full extension lengthens the movement and stretches out the power cycle of the technique. Shortening the power cycle requires a fairly good grasp of its dynamics, and allows the practitioner to go for the zippy and punchy moves more appropriate in a sportive arena. Delivering power like this however, takes much more skill IMO. I'm not saying I don't see sloppy techniques knocking people out. I'm just saying a correctly applied kick is not only hard to read but frightening.

Anyone care to talk about chambering and combination kicks? :-)

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4 Dec 2017

How Traditional Taekwondo grows yet stays the same

The Traditional Taekwondo instructor - very
much keeping it alive ... and real.
A traditional art is a collection of wishes from long dead masters.

The Traditional Taekwondo system - any system - however inspiring or epic in proportion and tale does not describe the totality of their ability. Nor of the totality of their methodology. To gain proficiency in fighting arts, practitioners need to follow their form, vary their form, and then depart from their form to realise its lessons.


  • Follow the form by endowing it with fundamental combative skill.
  • Vary the form by drilling it mnemonically.
  • Depart from the form by addressing our opponents' abilities.


This is how Traditional Taekwondo grows ... how it changes, yet stays the same.

As a Traditional Taekwondo instructor, I feel the weight of our legacy. But this weight doesn't hold me down. It anchors me, and my role is to set my students free by allowing them to play with the system, challenge the system, and choose the best of what they like from it.

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27 Nov 2017

You can have friends in the Martial Arts industry?

Whilst reading the interview on the back cover of Time Magazine, I had this brilliant idea to do a blog post if an interview of myself - yeah, written by myself! LOL. But then I thought anyone who knew what was going on would see right through that pomp. In a flash of brilliance, I then decided to ask other people questions about Colin Wee, and then publish it as a 'reverse' interview.

Yes, there's no doubt I like hearing nice things said about me. But there was more to this exercise than having random people pat me on the back. Look past what they're saying, and reflect a little on the relationship I have with each of them; and then reflect on your own thoughts about meeting other individuals in the martial arts community. One of my respondents Kyoshi Gary Simpson for example, was trying so hard to do justice to the difficult question I posed that when he submitted his response he feared he'd ruin the relationship - what a gentleman.

In my mind the reverse interview is probably more about the people I've asked and their own jungshin or their spirit. The subject of whom they're referring to is me, but their confidence, their surety in themselves, and their open heartedness could be a great subheader for this article.

I'm proud of the collegiate relationships and friendships I've developed along the way. There was a time I was wary of opening up to the martial arts world. I chose to sequester my group, isolating it from the rest of the world. With that mentality my group was only as good as the extent of my experiences on a good day. When I shifted my mindset and allowed myself to open up - guess how much more I learned, how much further they could take themselves.

I'd like to take time to thank Dan Djurdjevic, Ken Bac, Peter Wong, Ørjan Nilsen and Gary Simpson for their generosity of time, their expertise, and their support of me and my school - and also for indulging me and this little project.

There are those out there who can provide you a moral compass, a benchmark for your own development, and insight into your own martial practice. How to find them? Well …

… you just need to ask the right questions.


1. What is Colin like as a practitioner? by Dan Djurdjevic, The Way of Least Resistance

GM Greg Henderson, Dan Djurdjevic, Colin Wee, Vincent
Cordeiro, Gary Simpson, and Nigel Farrier at the 2014
IAOMAS National Conference in Perth
Colin is a very focused practitioner who never stops learning and developing his skills. He succeeds in keeping himself ahead of the current zeitgeist by asking questions others will only think of tomorrow, making him one of the few traditional martial arts practitioners who both remain true to their arts and keep them relevant in the 21st century.

He is uncompromising in his intellectual honesty, invested as a teacher, tough as a fellow student and caring as a fellow martial artist.

His measure of sensitivity to others, combined with his mental and physical toughness and thinking approach make him a formidable opponent and a useful man to have at your back.

Dan Djurdjevic

Dan Djurdjevic has been a practitioner of Okinawan Gojuryu Karate and Ryukyu Kobudo since 1981,  a practitioner of Filipino arnis/eskrima since 1985 and a practitioner of the Chen Pan Ling system of Chinese arts since 1989. I became a bai shi of Grand Master Chen Yun Ching (son of Chen Pan Ling) in 2009 and obtained a master's certificate from him in 2011. I was awarded my 5th Dan in Gojuryu karate in 2016. Dan is presently the chief instructor of The Academy of Traditional Fighting Arts in Perth, Australia. You can find articles from Dan at his award winning The Way of Least Resistance Blog.


2. Colin's Taekwondo. Comment. by Ken Bac, Martial Arts Geek

Ken Bac - extreme right, learning how to kick an invisible
person from the back of a chair with a roundhouse kick.
I've known Colin for 8 years, being introduced by a mutual friend. Colin has helped me immensely in gaining an understanding and appreciation for real traditional martial art styles. I'm not a regular student of his, but he has been instrumental in developing my martial arts path throughout the years, so I definitely consider him as a mentor and 'subject matter expert' for all things martial! I have been doing other martial arts for the last 15 years including Taekwondo, Muay Thai and Choy Lay Futt Kung Fu.

I have done Taekwondo before, but never seen anything like Colin's TKD before. I  always had the impression that Taekwondo was very 'mcdojo-ey', a good entry level martial art but lacked the depth for serious practitioners. Colin has totally changed that opinion.

His school Joong Do Kwan, which means school of the middle way, is a very apt name for his brand of TKD. It is both modern yet traditional, and bridges the distance between these two opposites extremely well.

It looks at tradition in the way it focuses on hyung/kata, looking deeply into it and even tracing back the evolution of a kata or technique back to the Japanese and Okinawan roots to understand its context, and use some traditional training techniques like makiwara for conditioning.

However, it is also extremely modern, with the classes even resembling krav maga's strong focus on self defense applications, and modern self defense concepts such as situational awareness. And whilst true traditional martial arts classes disdain 'competition' techniques, Colin's TKD delves into these sportive techniques whilst explaining how it can be modified for practical self defence purposes. (The school also forays into the occasional tournament sparring competitions.)

All in all, an extremely good school, suited for both novices as well as serious martial artists viewing to treat martial arts as a lifelong pathway.

Ken Bac
Fellow Martial Arts Geek

3. What are some of the projects Colin is involved in. by Peter Wong, Kidokwan Perth

Colin Wee, SM Peter Wong, and Master Robert Ho - striking
a pose after a training session at Kidokwan Perth August 2017
I have known Colin for nearly 10 years after meeting him at a Martial Arts Instructors 'Cross Training & exchange of training systems and techniques' in Perth.

I found Colin a very knowledgeable and committed Martial Artist always open to new ideas and friendship. He is always very generous in sharing his knowledge with other Instructors and students. With his enthusiasm to experiment and develop new approaches, he has many projects going.....like organising instructors' training, videoing different training approaches, teaching children classes, writing articles for his Blog and many others.

SM Peter Wong, 8th Dan
Chief Instructor and Founder
Taekwon-Do Kidokwan

4. What is Colin like as a person? by Ørjan Nilsen Founder, Traditional Taekwondo Ramblings
Ørjan Nilsen on the front cover of
Totally Taekwon Do magazine

Ørjan Nilsen
Traditional Taekwondo Ramblings

5. What areas do you think Colin can improve in? by Gary Simpson Zan Shin Kai Karate

Kyoshi Gary Simpson leads a class training JDK instructors
on Kata Jitte or 'Sip Soo' in Korean
Gee Colin… thanks for giving me the toughest question of all to answer.

OK, let me couch this in the knowledge that ALL of us can improve consistently in many areas, me included. This, of course, is part of life for those who are constantly striving to be the very best that they can with the skills and talents that they possess. Natural talent is limited but skills can always be improved.

So, to answer your question on a personal level and this is just my opinion based on my own personal knowledge and experience, here is my answer for you:

Practice kata EVERY day. Do it EVERY day, without fail. Do it on your birthday, Christmas Day, Easter, when you are overseas, on holiday, when you are not feeling well. No excuses! Be extremely disciplined. This is something that I have done (every day) since 2002. I would never suggest that anyone ‘should’ do something that I don’t do. So I am speaking from a position of authority here rather than so many of the martial arts ‘textbook experts’ out there.

The benefit to you will be that your physical ability and overall knowledge of your art will soar. Your mental ability to analyse everything will heighten to levels that you cannot even imagine now. You will automatically know what will work and what will not. You will see everything in your art so much more clearly. Your reaction to any given self-defence situation will become instinctive, rather than rehearsed. This is the old way. The way that worked. Not purchasing dan grades from some pathetic grading mill and wearing high-rank belts that are undeserved and cannot be backed up with knowledge. That is delusional.

On a more minor matter, I understand your deep passion for teaching others. You are creating a nice set of instructional videos. However, the videos you are making (again, in my opinion) are too long and too rambling. You need to limit them to 3 minutes. That is most people’s attention span which can be seen from most popular song recordings. They are all around 3 minutes for this very reason.

If you do this then you will get your prime message out in a succinct and concise manner. Those who are interested will watch the whole video rather than skimming and scanning.

Are we still friends after that? I hope so. You are a quality person Colin and I value our friendship very much.

Oh, just one further thing for your readers. We met via association with our US colleague, Bruce Clayton of the San Ten Karate Association [and author of Shotokan's Secret], after both of us (separately) visited his Californian dojo back in 2007.

Gary Simpson, Kyoshi, 8th Dan
Zanshin Kai Karate Do & Kobudo
Society of Martial Arts



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20 Nov 2017

The Bruce Lee that I knew

Bruce Lee trains with Jhoon Rhee. GM Jhoon Rhee brought Chung Do Kwan Taekwondo to the US in 1956. Jhoon Rhee's first black belt was Allen Steen. GM Allen Steen trained GM Keith Yates. Keith Yates trained Bryan Robbins, my teacher. Given I also know GM Keith Yates, that would make it three degrees of separation, wouldn't you say?
Bruce Lee was born 27 November 1940 and died aged 32 on 20 July 1973 in San Francisco. In 1973, I was a little less than 3 years old, living in Asia, and our paths would only cross through reruns of 1960s television series The Green Hornet and his portrayal of Kato.

Bruce Lee as Kato
Kato was the Bruce Lee that got me interested in martial arts. Interested in a lifelong path that would make me more than myself. I didn't see Kato as Britt Reid's butler, or as The Green Hornet's sidekick. I just saw Kato as a character whose travels coincided with The Green Hornet at that point in time, but who was adept and had the strength to go at it on his own if he needed.

Kato was understated, sharply dressed, quietly confident, and could explode into action at any time. You'd be looking out for pensive energy in his alter ego, but there would be none. This is the way of the warrior, surely? As Musashi would say "really skillful people never get out of time." Meaning one can move fluidly from gentility to crudity whilst keeping mental stillness - all you need is to keep it appropriate for the situation.

And what of his fighting prowess? Compared to the action we see nowadays, this was basic choreography and almost non-existent special effects. However, Kato relied only on those skills against the bad guys. More so, his skills looked doable *and* seemed learnable.

Another shot showing the exchange between early Taekwondo and JKD.
Speculation of his death was ongoing in the late 70s in South East Asia. As a young child, I understood he had died, but was unsure of the cause of death. Some say drugs. Others would say he was cursed, a theme which played out well in the early 1990s movie Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story. From what I understood, the curse arose because the name he was given unsettled the Nine Dragons of Kowloon. While his family tried to appease the spirits to mitigate their anger, his fame meant the protection accorded by anonymity or misdirection ceased to work.

Many would say Bruce Lee was larger than life. But I never really saw that side of him. To me, Kato was Bruce Lee. Someone who was normal. Nondescript. Believable. Someone who did the right things at the right time, against all odds - physical and spiritual, and without mouthing off. This was the Bruce Lee that propelled me on my path.

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